Proven to boost IVF success
Spectrum preimplantation genetic testing evaluates embryos for extra or missing chromosomes (PGT-A), single gene conditions (PGT-M), or structural rearrangements (PGT-SR), improving the chances of a healthy pregnancy.
Spectrum tests for chromosomal abnormalities and known inherited genetic condition(s). Sample collections include an embryo biopsy and parental blood/cheek swab. Most results will be returned to your doctor within 5-7 business days.
- Preimplantation genetic testing overview
- Ordering, Sample Collection & Logistics
- Cost & Billing
- Results & Reporting
What are my chances of having embryos with chromosomal abnormalities?
Extra or missing chromosomes can happen in any conception or pregnancy, simply by a random error in how the egg, sperm, or early embryo formed. However, the chances increase as the mother’s age increases.
Based on embryo biopsies performed at the blastocyst stage (day 5/6), the chance of producing an embryo with an abnormal number of chromosomes is up to 37% in women under 35 and over 75% for women 40 or older.*
*Data from 104,788 Trophectoderm (TE) samples screened at Natera.
Who could benefit from 24-chromosome preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A)?
24-chromosome PGT-A can be beneficial in the following scenarios:
- Advanced maternal age (women 35 years of age or greater)
- Embryo sex determination (sex selection) because of risk for X-linked conditions
- Prior pregnancy or child with a chromosomal abnormality
- Repeated unsuccessful IVF cycles
- Recurrent pregnancy loss
- Single-embryo transfer
- Screening of previously untested and frozen embryos
What are my chances of getting pregnant after Spectrum PGT-A?
There are several factors that influence whether or not you will become pregnant during your IVF cycle. Selecting to only transfer embryos with the correct number of chromosomes increases the chance for implantation and reduces the chance of miscarriage. On average, 1.38 embryo transfers per patient are needed to achieve a live birth in non-egg donor PGT-A cycles.*
*Reference: Simon, Alexander L. et al. Fertility and Sterility (2018), Volume 110, Issue 1, 113–121.
What are the benefits of Spectrum?
24-chromosome screening PGT-A can be done alone or together with translocation/inversion PGT-SR or single gene PGT-M when indicated. Natera’s Parental SupportTM technology determines the parental origin of extra or missing chromosomes, can confirm that embryo biopsy samples match parental samples, and detects some chromosome errors that would be missed with other technologies (e.g., uniparental disomy). Spectrum provides personalized accuracies for each chromosome call in each embryo biopsy sample. Natera also provides complimentary pre- and post-test genetic information sessions to help you understand the testing process and your results.
Why is knowing whether a chromosomal abnormality came from the mother or the father important?
Spectrum is able to tell whether a missing or extra chromosome came from the mother or the father. This can be important when looking for patterns of chromosome abnormalities, which may suggest a chromosome rearrangement in one of the parents. Knowing if the extra or missing chromosomes came from the egg or the sperm can also help IVF doctors talk with couples about the best plan for future IVF cycles.
What is mosaicism? I've heard that mosaicism is sometimes found with 24-chromosome PGT-A.
Mosaicism is not reported on Spectrum SNP array reports, but if present in a biopsy sample, it could potentially result in decreased confidence calls on the result report. If reporting on mosaicism is important for you, your provider may consider the Spectrum NGS test instead.
I’ve had multiple miscarriages and am now considering IVF – how do I know if PGT-A will help me?
In some studies, couples with two or more miscarriages have been found to have a higher number of embryos with chromosome abnormalities. Some studies have shown a higher rate of pregnancy, a lower chance for miscarriage, and a higher rate of live birth for couples who used PGT-A.
Before choosing PGT-A, couples who have had two or more miscarriages should talk with their doctor about having a chromosome study (karyotype analysis) to rule out a chromosome rearrangement. This can be done with a simple blood test. In about 5% of couples with more than one miscarriage, one person is found to have a balanced chromosomal rearrangement. This does not affect that person’s health, but it increases the chance for miscarriage and for having pregnancies or children with chromosomal abnormalities.
If a chromosomal rearrangement is found, Natera has a special PGT test (translocation/inversion PGT-SR) that can test embryo samples for unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements that can occur due to your specific chromosomal rearrangement.
What is a single gene condition?
A single gene condition is caused by a change, known as a mutation, in a particular gene which causes that gene to function improperly or not function at all. Single gene conditions are inherited and passed through families. Examples of single gene conditions include cystic fibrosis, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), hemophilia, and Tay-Sachs disease. In many cases, couples are ‘carriers’ of a gene mutation that does not affect their health, but puts their children at risk of inheriting the genetic condition.
Who could benefit from PGT-M?
If you have a child or relative with a single gene condition, or if you and your partner are carriers of a single gene condition, IVF with PGT-M may be considered to reduce the chance of having an affected child. Individuals who are affected with a single gene condition can use PGT-M to avoid passing down the condition.
How do I know if I’m a carrier of a single gene condition?
Carrier screening can be done prior to starting fertility treatment to learn if you and your partner are carriers of a condition. Natera offers Horizon carrier screening for single gene conditions. Talk to your doctor about Horizon carrier screening prior to starting your IVF cycle.
Who could benefit from translocation/inversion PGT-SR?
Couples in which one partner carries a chromosomal rearrangement (translocation or inversion) are at increased risk, beyond maternal age-related risk, to have embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. Translocation/inversion PGT-SR can identify embryos that have inherited extra and/or missing chromosome material as a result of the parent chromosomal rearrangement.
Do I need to have prenatal diagnosis (CVS or amniocentesis) if I have PGT?
Although PGT is highly accurate, there is a chance for test error or undetected mosaicism in an embryo. Thus, prenatal diagnostic testing with either chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis should be considered for pregnancies conceived via IVF with PGT. The decision to proceed with prenatal diagnostic testing should be made between a patient and their doctor. Natera also offers Panorama, a non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT), that can be used as a first-line screen for common chromosomal abnormalities without risk of miscarriage.
Who can I talk to to learn more about Spectrum?
You can ask your doctor or a genetic counselor to learn more about preimplantation genetic testing. You can ask your doctor to refer you to a local genetic counselor, or find one in your area through the National Society of Genetic Counselors at www.nsgc.org. Natera has board-certified genetic counselors that are available by telephone to answer questions about Spectrum preimplantation genetic testing. Please call 844-778-4700 or go online to our patient portal to schedule a genetic information session with a Natera board-certified genetic counselor.
When is PGT done?
PGT testing is done during an IVF cycle. A single cell or a few cells are removed from a developing embryo several days after fertilization, and these samples are then sent to Natera for testing. The embryos themselves are frozen and remain at your IVF center.
Does the biopsy harm the embryo?
There is a small chance that an embryo biopsy may harm the embryo. This could lower the chance for pregnancy. Babies born after embryo biopsy and PGT do not have an increased rate of birth defects when compared to babies born after IVF without embryo biopsy. No other known problems with embryo biopsy or PGT have been reported at this time. However, since embryo biopsy is still a newer procedure, a small chance of increased harm cannot be ruled out.
What samples, other than embryo biopsy, are required for Spectrum PGT?
Parental samples, or samples from the egg and sperm donor are needed for 24-chromosome screening. Single gene PGT-M often requires additional samples from other family members as well. Blood or cheek swab samples are accepted. Sperm donors have the option of submitting a sperm sample instead.
Does Spectrum check to see if the embryos are actually mine?
Yes. Natera’s Parental Support technology uses genetic information from the parents and automatically confirms that the embryo samples match the parent samples. In fact, we are unable to get results if the biological parents’ samples do not match the embryo samples.
How do I know if PGT-M testing can be done for a specific single gene condition of interest?
Once Natera receives a Spectrum requisition form from your IVF doctor and a copy of your genetic test results, our board-certified genetic counselors and lab team will perform an initial assessment of your family history and of the genetic condition in your family to find out if we can develop a test for you.
Why can't Natera test embryo samples for all possible single gene conditions?
In order to do PGT-M for a single gene condition, Natera must know the exact single gene change(s), or mutation(s), carried by the parent(s). At this time, it is not possible to test for single gene conditions in an embryo if specific mutations are not known to be present in the parent(s).
Can Natera test for a single gene condition and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type at the same time?
Yes. Natera is able to do PGT-M for HLA matching. When a couple would like to lower the chance of a single gene condition and also match HLA type with an affected sibling, PGT-M for both a single gene condition and HLA can be done at the same time.
Can Natera's testing of parent samples tell if a parent carries a balanced rearrangement?
No. Natera uses parent samples to help interpret embryo biopsy results. The samples are not used to find any health-related information on parents. If you want to know if you carry a balanced chromosomal rearrangement, talk with your doctor about ordering a test called a ‘karyotype’. A karyotype analysis can be ordered separately, through a cytogenetics laboratory, to rule out a chromosomal rearrangement.
Do I have to use ICSI for PGT-A, PGT-SR or PGT-M?
Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is when a single sperm is used to fertilize each egg in an IVF cycle. ICSI is recommended if you are doing PGT-A, PGT-SR, or PGT-M. When ICSI is not used, results can show an extra set of chromosomes caused by extra sperm. This is called sperm contamination. In these cases, we cannot be sure if the embryo itself has an extra set of chromosomes (and will therefore not result in a healthy liveborn child) or if there was sperm contamination. Since there is a chance for incorrect results when ICSI is not used, Natera recommends that you use ICSI during your IVF cycle.
What is the cost of Spectrum?
To understand your financial responsibility, please call Natera at 650-249-9090 ext. 297.
Will my insurance cover Spectrum?
How do I pay my bill?
Please call Natera at 650-249-9090 ext. 297 in order to settle your balance.
Does Natera offer payment plans for Spectrum?
Please call Natera at 650-249-9090 ext. 297 to check eligibility and payment plan options.
How long do PGT results take?
Once embryo biopsy samples are received at Natera, results typically take between 5-7 business days to be sent to your doctor. Your doctor will notify you of the results.
How will I know when my PGT results are available?
You will receive your results from your doctor’s office. They may tell you the results over the phone or ask you to come into their office.
Who can I talk to about my results?
Typically, you will receive your results from the healthcare provider who ordered the test. If you have specific questions about your results, we encourage you to schedule a complimentary genetic information session with a Natera board-certified genetic counselor. Please call 844-778-4700 to schedule an appointment.
How are the results reported?
Embryo biopsy samples are labeled to match the embryos that remain at your center. The results list which embryo biopsy samples had normal (euploid) results, which embryo biopsy samples had abnormal (aneuploid) results, and also any embryo biopsy samples with no/inconclusive results.